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Open Smart Cities III: Open Source Platforms, Services and Applications for Smart Cities

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1. Introduction.

In the two previous posts about Smart Cities we have presented some of the open source solutions available along the entire value chain of Smart City. From sensors and hardware, technology RDFI or augmented reality that allows data are captured from the city; M2M technologies for the transmission of information, data repositories, or Big Data technology that enables storing, analysing and visualization of large volumes of data, we find open source solutions, that in some cases, like in the field of Big Data, are leading the way to the rest of the solutions.

In this post we will examine the role that open source technologies, methodologies and governance models are playing in the service delivery platforms of Smart City, on the one hand, and in its services and applications on the other hand. We begin with a brief reference to the features and characteristics of such platforms and services of Smart City, to subsequently select a series of European projects focused on building this kind of Smart Cities platforms developed for the provision of services and/or application development, where open technologies play an important role. Finally, we have selected other projects, outside of EU programmes, which may be relevant and an inspiration in this area.

2. Astute City: sharing, reusing, cooperating.

What makes Cities Smart? How are the services of Smart City? On what common basis rests the development of this type of city? What is the role of open source technology (software, hardware, standards), methodology and governance model in Smart City paradigm?

The propose of Smart City is to increase the quality of life of its citizens through the use of intelligent technology (Big Data, IoT and M2M, sensors, mobile technologies, visualization, 3D, cloud platforms, open data platforms), improving the quality and efficiency of services provided by both, public bodies and companies, in order to produce an economical and environmental sustainable city's development.

The ultimate goal is to satisfy the increasingly demanding and complex needs of citizenship, making the best use of resources, which are in turn, increasingly scarce and diminishing1.
To achieve this, the city, as in any other time of History, will use the technologies of its age, which are currently the information and communication technologies, and especially, those that have been called the Future Internet technologies, which would include, among others: RFID, virtualization, photonic technologies, mobile multimedia wireless networks, security mobile broadband radio technologies, networks, robots, 3D multimodal human-machine interfaces, ambient intelligence (networks of sensors/actuators) or precise positioning technologies2.
According with Andrea Di Maio3, Gartner Analyst, cities which invest on Smart City paradigm, would deploy all its cleverness, more than its intelligence, to the extent that it would aspire to use the available funding effectively. That means, to reuse what already exists in all areas, including information or data, technology and infrastructure, and to ensure the sustainability of this model, trying to take advantage of the collaboration of different actors within and outside the traditional boundaries.

Smart City does not build more intelligent energy production plants, which makes is to deploy a smart grid for more efficient consumption and provides its buildings with energy generation systems for sustainable consumption. As we discussed below, the Smart City develops the necessary social, technological and cultural conditions for new services and technology-based applications can be developed efficiently, easily, security and confidence.

3. Intelligent Applications For Clever Cities

What does make Smart City applications different from the rest of applications? "The Apps for Smart Cities Manifesto"4 this type of apps are defined as those that being similar to conventional mobile applications, allow in combination with mobile devices, which often include sensors, interacting with hardware (usually open source hardware) which enables ‘intelligent data’ spots in the city.

Smart City apps are characterized by being aimed to empowering citizenship and long tail markets, and they usually include elements as crowdsourcing. Besides, Smart City apps use many existing and new mobile technologies including augmented reality, Android and other platforms and hardware technologies like Arduino, BUG, Funnel, Gainer, Make controller, Wiring, Sun SPOTs, Pinguino, Firmata and others.

According with the “The Apps for Smart Cities Manifesto" Smart city applications could have the following 7 elements:

Sensible: sensors sensing the environment

  • Connectable: A networking devices bring the sensing information to the web;

  • Accessible: The broader information of our environment is published on the web, and accessible to the user (web);

  • Ubiquitous: The user can get access to the information thought web, but more importantly in mobile any time, any place (mobile);

  • Sociable: The user can publish the information though his social network

  • Sharable: The object itself must be accessible and addressable (not just the data) in a true peer to peer networked manner.

  • Visible/augmented: To retrofit the physical environment, make the hidden information seen not only through mobile device by individual but seen in naked eyes in more border range of the physical places like street signs.

4. Smart City's enablers

There are several areas of interest that are being researched and developed in the intelligent city context. Currently, the Smart City services and apps focus on these topics5.
  • Energy consumption and transport improvement.

  • Technology and innovation, which is turning cities and their actors in sensors, capable of communicating their needs and respond to certain scenarios in real time;

  • Smart society and collaborative city, as a result, among other factors, of the adoption by the citizenship of new technologies (for example the smarthpones), that is drawing a scene to empower citizens in the public arena and to drive participation of citizens in innovation processes.

  • The environment, through research into new energy sources, reduced water consumption and waste emission reduction, etc.

  • Urban planning and building, refocusing on building cities on a human scale.

  • Mobility, based on a new paradigm derived from climate change that focus on new solutions based on technology infrastructure services, electricity, multimodal mobility, and space and shared services.

  • Governance and the economy, because of local authorities face with the high demands of its citizens, whose capacity to influence in the city government has increased.

In these areas is where the paradigm of Smart City represents the opportunity to make available to citizens, businesses and administrations a range of innovative new services and applications settled on four main axes or facilitators6:
  • Engagement and citizen participation

  • Open access to Data

  • Technologies of the Future Internet

  • and the City's development as advance innovation ecosystems

Let's take a look at these aspects in more detail.

4.1 The participative city.

In the words of the urban planner and Smart Cities expert, Pablo Sánchez Chillón, citizenship is the backbone of the urban space for a better way of life. Therefore, when political leaders are looking for new opportunities for its cities and they want to address the development of its city ​​from the paradigm of intelligent city, the first thing they have to do is to open a debate about their urban identity, get a proper feedback from their community regarding the city aspirations and its limits, and try to maximize the space for civic engagement from the very beginning of the project7.

4.2  Sensing, transparent, open and connected city.

Secondly, the opening of data generated by the city, and in the city, is the starting point for the emergence of innovative initiatives capable to provide services and applications based on information technology, which facilitate new relationships between citizens and their government. At the same time, open data enables the emergence of new businesses based on the transformation of a large amount of information into knowledge8. That is one reason, together with transparency and good governance that has made that Open Data initiatives will be extend around the world9. Inhabitants of the city with their Smartphones, cars, social media accounts, houses, offices, energy consumption, etc., leave "Big" footprints of information everywhere. Cities have these large amounts of data or "Big Data" in each corner: smart meters, RFID tags, security cameras, Foursquare, transportation centres, Smartphones, research centres, logistic enterprises, sensor networks, car devices, etc., and where there is big data, there is knowledge to be discovered and new possibilities for innovation.

Open data refers not only to the opening of public sector data which would be available to society on public platforms, but would also extend to the data produced by citizenship and private companies who share their data with the authorities, whom share their public data with the city.

4.3 Collaborative and innovative city.

Cities, to address their challenges, are opening their data and deploying open source methodologies which let people, community, and their organizations to develop contents and applications that result in social and technological innovation and economic growth10.
In the City, understood as a system of innovation, participate all value chain actors: university, government, business and citizens work together to create joint projects. In this type of city, the infrastructure, platforms and evaluation methodologies are available to all these actors, offering better equality and boosting and supporting innovation where it can be developed with more probability, in many cases in small, medium or very small companies11.

4.4 The city as a service platform.

From the technological point of view, the service delivery platforms of Smart City will be the common technological base of the city. These platforms provide a set of modules that are common to multiple services offered as part of the Smart City project. These platforms are horizontal and scalable, and allow offer safety and privacy guaranteed services12.
Rick Robinson, Executive Architect at IBM specialising in emerging technologies and Smarter Cities, points out, that to develop services and applications for Smart Cities is necessary taken into account, firstly, (how we have noted upper) what specific information and technology services are need of citizens, communities, entrepreneurs, businesses and social enterprises, to help them succeed and grow. Secondly, it is necessary to give cities the right tools and platforms that make easier to develop applications and services13.

Juanjo Hierro, Chief Architect for the FI-WARE platform project (Future Internet Core Platform) states that for the development of applications and smart services, application developers would need a platform that would give them:

• real-time access to information from the physical city infrastructure

• simple tools to manage Big data sets and to transform them into knowledge

• the chance to take benefit of open innovation (open data, collaboration),

• and easy access to their target audience, to make the business of its applications14.

Finally, Robinson argues that in a scenario where many cities will deploy many information infrastructures supplied by many different vendors, the limit would be place by standards. Robinson claims that if we want to make the city a place of innovation, Smart City infrastructures should support Open Standards and interoperability with Open Source technologies.

Some standards for the Smart City infrastructure are already in place, for example, Web services15 and Common Alerting Protocol16, but many others will need to be invented and spread. As an example, IBM recently donated MQTT17, a protocol for the connection information between small devices such as sensors and actuators in Smart City systems to the Open Source community.
Thus, as it is indicated by CORDIS18, we venture from the Internet of things to the Internet of Innovation, and that is, because the creation of Future Internet services on the fly turns users into service developers, blurring the separation between the actors of the city. Internet, in this scene is developed as an Innovation Eco-System. This is a reason why the European Project Webinos, which is an Open Source platform for building web applications, claims the need of an open innovation community for web and open source (OS) technology, with a model of open source governance, and to accelerate the standardization process of such open environments, giving multiple parties the opportunity to innovate collaboratively with their competitors, but in a clean 'sand-boxed' domain that minimises the commercial risk to the participants.
There are other many European projects related to the Future Internet highlight the importance of technology and open source methodologies in the context of Smart Cities. Specifically, the FIREBALL project (Future Internet Research and Experimentation By Adopting Living Labs, towards Smart Cities) states that for an efficient and rational management of Smart Cities is crucial to share applications, using existing and proven solutions, turning to open source solutions and cloud-based solutions, adopting a long-term perspective and data, and having a strong concern about the sustainability /viability of solutions19.

So Open Source technologies facilitates on the one hand, the configuration of the Smart City from the technological point of view, and at the same time, provides a participative, collaborative and open model of social development, in which different stakeholders can work together to solve complex problems taking into account all angles: technological, social or political.

5 EU Smart City platforms and services

The EU is spending billions of Euros on the development of innovative and R&D projects in the context of the Future Internet and Smart City. Some of the most important, aim to develop common platforms and services at European level that enable the development and deployment of Smart Cities and the provision of Future Internet-based services. To achieve these objectives some of these projects are using open source technologies and methodologies and releasing their solutions, fully or partially, as open source.

Below we describe some of these projects.

5.1 Smart Objects for Intelligent Applications (Sofia).

Sofia20 is an R+D+I project developed between 2009 and 2011 as part of the ARTEMIS Joint Technology Initiative (JTI)21. Aiming to connect the physical world to the information world the project has developed a platform based Semantic Web technology, interoperability and intelligent sensor networks, which allows automation of cities, buildings and cars, as well as providing intelligent and personalized services, such as location, context information or motion detection through mobile devices.

The project involved eighteen partners from different EU countries, both public and private entities. With the objective that the project results, thanks to the public funds, be available to adopt by all actors, all technical solutions developed under the project are open source and it a community around the project has been launched.

5.2 webinos.

Webinos22 is an EU funded project aiming to deliver an Open Source Platform and software components for the Future Internet in the form of web runtime extensions, to enable web applications and services to be used and shared consistently and securely over a broad spectrum of converged and connected devices, including mobile, PC, home media (TV) and in-car units. The project is an initiative of 30 project partners from across Europe, spanning academic institutions, industry research firms, software firms, handset manufacturers and automotive manufacturers.

Webinos is a “Service Platform” project under the EU FP7 ICT Programme with a budget of 14 m€ including 10 m€ of EU funding. A foundation is planned to continue the work after the end of the project in August 2013, building upon an affiliates program launched in August 2011 that seeks to attract additional organizations to help with work on specifications and platform development.

5.3 Internet Future Core 5.3 Platform: FI-WARE.

The FI-WARE platform is being developed as part of the Future Internet initiative FI-PPP (Private Internet Future Partnership Programme) 27 launched by the European Commission in collaboration with the ICT industry with the main objective to promote a shared vision for harmonised European-scale technology platforms and their implementation, as well as the integration and harmonisation of the relevant policy, legal, political and regulatory frameworks. As set forth in the Digital Agenda for Europe, these are considered to be prerequisites for realizing a European online Digital Single Market (DSM) and, more broadly, an inclusive knowledge society.

The FI-WARE platform aims to provide a framework for the development of intelligent applications in the Future Internet. FI-WARE will deliver a novel service infrastructure, building upon elements (called Generic Enablers) which offer reusable and commonly shared functions making it easier to develop Future Internet Applications in multiple sectors building a true foundation for the Future Internet.

The project will develop Open Specifications of these Generic Enablers, together with a reference implementation of them available for testing. This way, it is aimed to develop working specifications that influence Future Internet standards.

The Reference Architecture of the FI-WARE platform is structured along a number of technical chapters, namely:

  • Data/Context Management23
  • Internet of Things (IoT) Services Enablement24
  • Security25
  • Cloud Hosting26
  • Interface to Networks and Devices (I2ND)27
  • Applications/Services Ecosystem and Delivery Framework
Precisely in this final chapter of services and applications we find the Repository and Marketplace, which have been developed by SAP and released under BSD open source license.
Both solutions are available o
n github. The Repository 28is a core enabler of the FI-Ware Business Framework and provides a consistently uniform API to USDL service descriptions and associated media files for applications of the business framework. A service provider can use the Repository to publish the description of various aspects of the service according to a uniform description language.
As for the Marketplace29 is an instrument to facilitate commerce by bringing together vendors and buyers, or offers and demand, or producers and consumers. The core functionality of the Marketplace is to provide a uniform service interface to discover and match application and service offerings from providers and sources (e.g. published by different stores) with demand of consumers. This core functionality provides a basis for extended services depending on the domain and nature of the target markets.

In addition, there are other enablers or tools of the platform that contain open source tools or that are licensed with open source licenses. For example, between the components of Big Data Analysis GE we find MongoDB database, or HDFS Apache a distributed file system. Another example is the applications mashup Wirecloud, whose execution engine is available as open source under Affero General Public License version 3 (AGPL v. 3) license.

5.4 OpenCities: OSN Platform

Open Cities is a project co-founded by the European Union that aims to validate how to approach Open & User Driven Innovation methodologies to the Public Sector in a scenario of Future Internet Services for Smart Cities. It will do so, by leveraging existing tools, trials and platforms in Crowdsourcing, Open Data, Fiber to the Home and Open Sensor Networks in seven major European cities: Helsinki, Berlin, Amsterdam, Paris, Rome, Barcelona and Bologna30.
In the scope of this project it has been developed the Open Sensor Network Platform31 which is distributed under the Apache License 2.0, and that allows the storage of data from both static and dynamic sensor network, and provides the necessary tools to developers so they can build applications and services from these data.

5. 5 PEOPLE: Smart Cities for Smart Innovation

PEOPLE32 is another public- private partnership project funded under the ICT Policy Support Programme (ICT PSP) as part of the Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme by the European Community, in the area of Smart Cities. PEOPLE is focused on services and applications for Smart Cities, in particular, the project has launched sixteen open source, innovative internet-based services in four European cities: Bilbao (Spain), Bremen (Germany), Thermi (Greece) and Vitry sur Seine (France).

PEOPLE’s internet-based services are integrated, composed and deployed from data coming from the urban ecosystem, for this reason, an Open Data Model and flows of information to service providers have been defined in the project. The source code of all these services and applications is available as open source, and for most of the projects it has been created a community. The objective is that these solutions can be shared at pan-European level.

Some of the smart open source deployed by PEOPLE are shown below33:

• HoyRespiro: The service provides georeferenced information on air quality, pollen levels and weather.

• 3DWalkingTour: Is a website with provide a 3D video tour.

• GeoCur: The service provides georeferenced information on activities and courses in the city of Bilbao.

• Local Information Service: The application provides traffic information, bus schedules, weather and air quality.

Improve your city: The application allows citizens to report problems detected in the city using Internet (pc, smartphone). The tool centres around a web-based map that displays all user comments. Users may add comments, suggest solutions, or add video and pictures and they can be informed about the solving stage of the reported problem. E-mail alerts are also available

• Virtual City Market: This application represents the marketplace of Thermi and is targeting on offers, promotions and discounts. Access to shops is made through PCs, mobile phones, screens and quick response (QR) codes embedded in the physical space of the city centre. Information about local businesses and professionals is available through a digital inventory, which will operate in the city centre. Finally, the virtual marketplace can incorporate social networks‘ characteristics allowing visitors to rate products and services as well as to suggest offers to their friends.

• Tool to find car parks paragraph: The tool provides real-time information about the availability of parking in the car parks of the city centre, both available as price. An application is accessed via web or smartphones.

SenseTheCity: The application involves the installation of wireless sensors that measure air pollution and send measurements to a central hub. Data are presented to citizens on digital and physical displays, screens and balloons at different locations.

5.6 ICOS: Open Source Community for Smart Cities

In the scope of the project PEOPLE has also developed an interesting initiative called ICOS-Intelligent /Smart Cities Open Source Community. ICOS stands for Intelligent Cities Open Source, a community of developers, planners, engineers, and users working in the field of intelligent / smart cities. ICOS is addressed to anyone interested on intelligent/smart cities development and looks for applications and solutions which have been successfully implemented in other cities. In the technology supply side, the community addressed to developers wishing to disseminate the applications and solutions they have created. In the demand side, ICOS is addressed to city authorities, infrastructure and utilities managers, city stakeholders wishing to use smart city solutions in order to increase the competitiveness, cohesion, and sustainability of the city.

Actually, ICOS has registered forty open source applications which have been implemented in the context of Smart Cities. It is possible to search applications by type of license, functionality (economic innovation, quality of life, infrastructure and utilities, city government, or more general applications) or by the type of software (collective intelligence, open data, data mining, communication tools, information visualization, crowdsourcing etc.). As an example, some of the solutions we find in INCOS are:

• Zanby34: is an GPLv3 enterprise community software platform that provides collaboration and organization tools for communities of purpose. Zanby’s vision is to provide community as a Web service to all kinds of groups – from small neighbourhood clubs to chapter-based organizations to enterprise-class corporations. Zanby helps companies adapt to a new definition of the enterprise. Using the principles of social media, it extends your investment in back office and ERP applications, to collaborative internal and customer communities, to managing your relationship with the social web.
OpenSpending35: offers an easy system to upload, explore and share public finance data – such as budgets or expenditure databases. While we offer search and visualization features to slice and dice financial data, our API is even more powerful: it enables anyone to easily create their own visualizations and budget apps, without building their own backend. The site is offered as a free service. All code, content and data are shared and openly licensed.

5. 7 City Service Development Kit: CitySDK

In the field of the Smart City services provision we find CitySDK36, set of open source tools for the development of digital services in the cities. CitySDK is the unifying parts between various smart city software/hardware platforms and the end-user application developers – “whatever the Developers need to get pan-European Smart City Applications created easily” – in this sense it is a socio-technological ecosystem platform with software unification approach.

The toolkit comprises of open and interoperable digital service interfaces as well as processes, guidelines and usability standards. Besides, it works as an app store which facilitate the transfer of Smart City applications from one city to another city. CitySDK enables a more efficient utilisation of the expertise and know-how of developer communities to be applied in city service development.

CitySDK is a 3.4 million Euro project, part funded by the European Commission. It is a Pilot Type B within the ICT Policy Support Programme of the Competitiveness and Framework Programme. It runs from January 2012-June 2014.

CitySDK works with 22 public and private partners, from eight European cities as: Helsinki, Barcelona, Amsterdam, Manchester, Lamia, Estambul, Lisboa and Roma.

In the project includes the practical application of this set of open source tools in the fields of participation, mobility and tourism, where several services will be developed as we can see below:

  • Smart participation37: The Smart Participation Lead pilot is implemented firstly in Helsinki, and afterwards the concept will be expanded to other cities. The purpose of the pilot is to create an open interface that acts as an issue-reporting channel between the citizens and the civil servants. The pilot is based on the Open31138 technology, which is a standardized protocol for location-based collaborative issue tracking. This protocol has a wide variety of open source technology for its implementation39.
  • Smart Tourism40: The pilot, implemented in Lisboa, focuses on creating location-based mobile services for tourists. The ultimate goal is to create a European-wide market for tourism applications based on Open Data made available by public or private entities. From the technological point of view, the main output of the Tourism pilot will be the final API to access Points of Interest (POI), Routes and Events information that, once deployed, will allow effortless transfer of applications among cities using CitySDK. The Smart Tourism Pilot uses cities’ existing open data and open interfaces, as well as crowd sourced information regarding POIs and Events.
  • Smart Mobility41: The Smart Mobility domain piloted in Amsterdam aims to create services based on real-time traffic data combined from multiple sources. Services might be used for choosing the most suitable transport option, informing fellow travellers of traffic jams or the best coffee in town while waiting for a bus. The open source “Personal Travel Assistant” is a mobile application that assists the citizens based on geo-location, preferences and the real-time crowd-sourced information from the public transport and traffic situation.

5. 8 i-SCOPE: S services interoperable Smart City through an open platform for urban ecosystems

i-SCOPE42 is another innovation project related to intelligent cities which combines the deployment of a platform and the provision of services to citizens based on this platform. i-SCOPE is supported by the CIP/ICT PSP Objective Identifier 5.1: Open Innovation for Internet-enabled Services in Smart Cities. The project began in 2012 and it has a duration of 36 months and 22 partners different countries of different countries.
i-SCOPE provides an Open Source and Open Standars43, Interoperable Platform for Smart City Services. i-SCOPE integrates a number existing technologies as federation of interoperable web-services which will ensure interoperability through support of OGC44 standards. The project is based on use of CityGML as Urban Information Model on top of which 3D smart city services are created.

The services will address:

  • Improved inclusion and personal mobility of ageing and diversely able citizens through an accurate city-level disable-friendly personal routing service which accounts for detailed urban layout, features and barriers.

  • Optimization of energy consumption through a service for accurate assessment of solar energy potential at building level.

  • Environmental monitoring through a real-time environmental noise mapping service leveraging citizen's involvement will who act as distributed sensors city-wide measuring noise levels through their mobile phones.

The i-SCOPE toolkit will be open source, so will be the specifications created during the project, i.e. extension of current CityGML standard and creation of three Application Domain Extensions for the three project scenarios. The EEIG will be responsible for future development and maintenance of i-SCOPE toolkit. The EEIG will ensure promotion of i-SCOPE, technological road mapping, development & maintenance of the i-SCOPE toolkit, consultancy, training.

6. Other open source platforms and applications for the Smart City

Outside the scope of the European projects there are other initiatives related to Smart Cities platforms and applications that we would like to point.

6.1 Waspmote: Open Source Sensor Platform for IoT

Waspmote, Wireless sensor networks platform45, developed by the Spanish company Libelium, is an example of open source platform capable of dealing with different technologies, communication protocols and sensor databases, capable to deal with different technologies, communication protocols and sensors databases, which enables developers to design and deploy sensor applications for the Smart City. Waspmote is a horizontal and scalable platform, especially oriented to developers, and it works with different protocols (ZigBee, Bluetooth,3G/GPRS) and frequencies (2.4GHz, 868MHz, 900MHz) being capable of getting links up to 12km.

It counts with an hibernate mode of 0.7uA which allows to save battery when it is not transmitting. More than 50 sensors already available (humidity, temperature, radiation, infrared, etc.) and a complete open source IDE (API libraries + compiler) made really easy to start working with the platform. Waspmote has more than 2,000 developers worldwide, and hundreds of applications have been developed. Some examples of Smart City services deployed with the Waspmote platform are:

•Smart Parking in Santander46: Monitoring of parking spaces availability in the city.
•PRETESIC47 in Valencia: Monitoring of sanitary sewer in real-time, measuring the quality of water and testing if the system work properly.
•RESCATEME48, in Salamanca: Monitoring Air Pollution
•SISVIA49- Environment Monitoring, in Asturias to detect forest fires.

6.2 Code for America Commons (CfA Commons)

In the U.S. we found the project Commons Code for America50. Launched in 2011 as Civic Commons and incubated as a collaborative experiment in civic innovation in partnership with Open Plans, the CfA Commons has evolved to become a standalone, ongoing product offering at Code for America.

The basic premise is that governments can make better use of scarce technology dollars by working together to solve common problems. The objective of the project is help authorities to share their solutions, knowledge, and best practices. The Code for America Commons is an information product, made up of the Commons app directory and the Commons Wiki knowledge base.

The Civic Commons Marketplace, currently in private beta, aligns cities around the technologies they buy and build by fostering an engaged community of government decision-makers, organizations, and vendors. The market classifies the apps by type of software (CMS, data integration, HRM, etc.), functionality, or license. Also it show a ranking of the most used solutions. Actually there are 72 applications with open source licenses (GPL, Apache, MIT and BSD). A couple of sample applications are:

•FixMyStreet51: allows anyone to report a street problem to the council, even if they don't know who's responsible. Typical issues include potholes, broken street-lights, fly-tipping, and dog mess.
•Open Legislation52: Open Legislation is both an interface to allows citizens to browse, search and share legislative information with single search, as well as a service that allows applications access to its underlying data via a robust API.

Open Legislation is a component of “Open Senate,” a series of award-winning technology initiatives that seek to maximize the transparency and accessibility of legislative information for all New Yorkers, and provide new ways for citizens to participate in the legislative process.

6.3 Open City: Open data Apps for Civil Society.

Also in the U.S. but at locall level, specifically in the city of Chicago, there is an interesting citizenship initiative called Open City, that is a group of volunteers that create apps with open data to improve transparency and citizen understanding of our government. Actually, they have developed ten open source apps, with the MIT license. Some of these apps are:

•2nd City Zoning53 is an interactive map that lets you find out how your building is zoned, learn where to locate your business and explore zoning patterns throughout the city. To make Chicago’s zoning code digestible by humans, we took inspiration from one of our favourite games: Sim City 2000.
•Edifece54: is a series of maps that explore Chicago's built environment, from building footprints, to violations demolitions, and new construction.
•How's Business?55: How’s Business provides a dashboard of Chicago’s local economy. It uses open data from the City of Chicago, the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Woodstock Institute to show how several economic indicators have been trending since 2005.

Fecha:04/04/2012.

Autora: Ana Trejo Pulido.

1A complete analysis in “The Future of Shrinking Cities - Problems, Patterns and Strategies of Urban Transformation in a Global Context.” Available on: http://metrostudies.berkeley.edu/shrinking.html

2Source: “Internet del futuro: visión y tecnologías implicadas” CITIC (Círculo de Innovación en las Tecnologías de la Información y las Comunicaciones). Colección de Informes de Vigilancia Tecnológica madri+d. Disponible en: http://www.madrimasd.org/tic/Informes/default.aspx

3Source: http://blogs.gartner.com/andrea_dimaio/2012/12/14/smart-cities-are-not-intelligent-they-are-astute/

4Source: http://www.appsforsmartcities.com/?q=manifesto

5Smart City Expo World Congress 2012 identifies these areas of interest in: http://media.firabcn.es/content/S078012/SmartCity2012Memoria.pdf

6Source: http://www.slideshare.net/openlivinglabs/mcam-eurocities-25-january-2012-final

7Source: http://www.smartcityexhibition.it/i-protagonisti/pablo-sanchez-chillon-cittadino-e-spina-dorsale-della-smart-city-2/?lang=en

8In 2012, in Spain, the turnover derived from the reuse of public sector information was between 330 and 550 mill €. Source available at: http://datos.gob.es/datos/sites/default/files/files/estudio_infomediario/Info_sector%20infomediario_2012.pdf

9In data.gov we find a list of 39 countries, 115 regions, 40 U.S. states and 21 U.S. cities that are developing open data projects with the goal of democratizing access to public data and promoting innovation. More information at: http://www.data.gov/opendatasites

10Source: http://datascienceseries.com/assets/blog/Greenplum-Open_Data_Power_Smart_Cities-web.pdf

 

11More information: Un definición sobre los Living Lab está disponible en: http://openlivinglabs.i2cat.cat/documents/Europai2010_infonomia.pdf

12Source: Disponible en: http://www.fundacion.telefonica.com/es/que_hacemos/media/publicaciones/SMART_CITIES.pdf

13Source: http://theurbantechnologist.com/2012/08/13/the-amazing-heart-of-a-smarter-city-the-innovation-boundary/

14Source: Fuente: https://connect.metropolia.fi/p96d6wpzgrj/?launcher=false&fcsContent=true&pbMode=normal

15More information: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_service

16More information: http://www.incident.com/cap/what-why-how.html

17More information: http://mqtt.org/

 

18Source: http://cordis.europa.eu/fetch?ACTION=D&CALLER=OFFR_TM_EN&RCN=7990

19Source: http://www.anci.it/Contenuti/Allegati/White%20paper%20Fireball%20su%20Smart%20City.pdf

20Source: http://www.sofia-community.org/Y en: http://www.indracompany.com/noticia/indra-disena-una-plataforma-urbana-para-gobernar-las-smart-cities

21Source: Más información en: http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/information_society/other_policies/i23045_es.htm

 

22Source: http://www.webinos.org/about-webinos/

23Source: http://forge.fi-ware.eu/plugins/mediawiki/wiki/fiware/index.php/Data/Context_Management

24Source: http://forge.fi-ware.eu/plugins/mediawiki/wiki/fiware/index.php/Internet_of_Things_(IoT)_Services_Enablement

25Source: http://forge.fi-ware.eu/plugins/mediawiki/wiki/fiware/index.php/Security

26Source: http://forge.fi-ware.eu/plugins/mediawiki/wiki/fiware/index.php/Cloud_Hosting

27Source: http://forge.fi-ware.eu/plugins/mediawiki/wiki/fiware/index.php/Interface_to_Networks_and_Devices_(I2ND)

28Source: Repository Reference Implementation by SAP: https://github.com/service-business-framework/Repository-RI Repository in the Fi-Ware Catalog:http://catalogue.fi-ware.eu/enablers/repository-sap-ri

29Marketplace Reference Implementation by SAP:https://github.com/service-business-framework/Marketplace-RI Marketplace in the Fi-Ware Catalog:http://catalogue.fi-ware.eu/enablers/marketplace-sap-ri

30Source: http://opencities.net/content/project

31Source: http://opencities.upf.edu/osnweb/

32Source: http://www.people-project.eu/portal/

33A description of all services developed by PEOPLE, their source code, documentation and community is available at: http://www.people-project.eu/portal/

34Source: http://zanby.com/

35Source: http://openspending.org/about/contact.html

36More information: http://www.slideshare.net/fullscreen/adrianslatcher/citysdk/2

37More information: http://www.citysdk.eu/participation/

38More information: http://open311.org/

39More information: http://wiki.open311.org/GeoReport_v2/Resources

40More information: http://www.citysdk.eu/participation/

41More information: http://www.citysdk.eu/mobility/

42More information: http://www.iscopeproject.net

43More information: http://www.iscopeproject.net/iscopeNew/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=121&Itemid=76

44More information: http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/is

45More information in: : www.libelium.com/waspmote

46More information: http://www.libelium.com/smart_santander_parking_smart_city/

47More information: : www.libelium.com/smart_water_cycle_monitoring_sensor_network/

48More information: http://www.rescatame.eu/DisplayPage.aspx?pid=24

49More information: http://www.aet.org.es/jornadas/zaragoza/presentacion11.pdf

50More information: http://commons.codeforamerica.org/apps

51More information: http://commons.codeforamerica.org/apps/fixmystreet

52More information: http://commons.codeforamerica.org/apps/open-legislation

 

53More information: https://github.com/open-city/cps-tiers

54More information: https://github.com/open-city/edifice-maps

55More information: https://github.com/open-city/edifice-maps